Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.15/404
Título: Aplicação de Modelos Teóricos Motivacionais ao Contexto do Exercício - Explorar a Integração das Teorias dos Objectivos de Realização e do Comportamento Autodeterminado e a sua Relação com a Adesão ao Exercício Físico em Ginásios
Autor: Cid, Luís
Palavras-chave: Motivação
Objectivos de realização
Exercício
Avaliação psicológica
Clima motivacional
Teoria da autoafirmação
Análise factorial confirmatória
Motivation
Achievement goals
Psychological assessment
Data de Defesa: 2010
Editora: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Resumo: Estudo 1 Tradução e Validação da Versão Portuguesa da Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure (GOEMp). Análise Factorial Exploratória e Confirmatória ao Modelo de Medida dos Objectivos de Realização no Contexto do Exercício O objectivo principal do estudo é a apresentação dos resultados da tradução e validação da versão Portuguesa da Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure (GOEM), com recurso à análise factorial exploratória (AFE) e confirmatória (AFC), realizadas com dois grupos independentes de praticantes de exercício em ginásios, de ambos os géneros e com idades compreendidas entre os 15 e os 55 anos (AFE: n=120; AFC: n=318). Os resultados obtidos na AFE revelam uma estrutura factorial igual à versão original (modelo de 10 itens), que explica 62.1% da variância dos resultados, com pesos factoriais entre 0.54 e 0.88, e uma boa consistência interna (αEgo=0.88; αTarefa=0.80). Os resultados obtidos na AFC indicam que o modelo se ajustou aos dados de forma bastante aceitável: S-Bχ²=65.9; df=34; p=0.001; S-Bχ²/df=1.94; SRMR=0.05; NNFI=0.96; CFI=0.97; RMSEA=0.05; 90% IC RMSEA=0.03-0.07, observando-se ainda uma consistência interna razoável (αEgo=0.84; αTarefa=0.77), e pesos factoriais estandardizados entre 0.45 e 0.86, o que nos leva a concluir que a versão Portuguesa da GOEM pode ser utilizada, com elevada confiança, na avaliação dos objectivos de realização no domínio do exercício. Estudo 2 Tradução e Validação da Versão Portuguesa da Adaptação para o Exercício do Perceived Motivational Climate Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQp). Análise Factorial Exploratória e Confirmatória ao Modelo de Medida da Percepção do Clima Motivacional no Contexto do Exercício O objectivo principal do estudo é a apresentação dos resultados da tradução e validação da versão Portuguesa da adaptação ao exercício do Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ), com recurso à análise factorial exploratória (AFE) e confirmatória (AFC), realizadas com dois grupos independentes de praticantes de exercício em ginásios, de ambos os géneros e com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 64 anos (AFE: n=122; AFC: n=358). Os resultados obtidos na AFE revelam uma estrutura factorial que explica 52% da variância dos resultados, com pesos factoriais entre 0.63 e 0.80, e uma boa consistência interna (αMestria=0.78; αPerformance=0.74). Os resultados obtidos na AFC indicam que o modelo se ajustou aos dados de forma excelente: S-Bχ²=40.6; df=34; p=0.20; S-Bχ²/df=1.19; SRMR=0.03; NNFI=0.98; CFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.02; 90% IC RMSEA=0.00-0.05, observando-se ainda uma consistência interna razoável (αMestria=0.74; αPerformance=0.75), e pesos factoriais estandardizados entre 0.50 e 0.79, o que nos leva a concluir que a versão Portuguesa da adaptação do PMCSQ ao exercício pode ser utilizada, com elevada confiança, na avaliação do clima motivacional no domínio do exercício. Estudo 3 Avaliação das Necessidades Psicológicas Básicas no Contexto do Exercício. Exploração de um Índice Global de Satisfação da Autonomia, Competência e Relação, a partir da Versão Portuguesa da Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNESp) O objectivo deste estudo é examinar as qualidades psicométicas da versão Portuguesa da Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNESp), bem como, a exploração de um modelo hierárquico que permita avaliar as necessidades psicológicas básicas na sua globalidade. Participaram no estudo 550 praticantes de exercício físico em ginásios, com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e 69 anos. Os resultados suportam a adequação do modelo de três factores e doze itens (S-Bχ²=134.7; df=51; p=0.000; χ²/df=2.64; SRMR=0.05; NNFI=0.93; CFI=0.94; RMSEA=0.06; 90% IC RMSEA=0.04-0.07), bem como, do modelo hierárquico com um factor de 2ª-ordem subjacente aos três factores de 1ª-ordem (SBχ ²=134.9; df=52; p=0.000; χ²/df=2.59; SRMR=0.05; NNFI=0.93; CFI=0.94; RMSEA=0.05; 90% IC RMSEA=0.04-0.07). Os resultados indicam ainda uma consistência interna razoável (Autonomia=0.68; Competência=0.68; Relação=0.81; Índice Global=0.82), o que nos leva a concluir que a versão Portuguesa do BPNES poderá ser utilizada com um elevado grau de confiança, na avaliação das necessidades psicológicas básicas no contexto do exercício.- Study 1 Translation and Validation of the Portuguese version of Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure (GOEMp). Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Measurement Model of Achievement Goals in Exercise Domain The main purpose of this study is to present the results of translation and validation of the Portuguese version of Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure (GOEM) through exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis, performed with two independent groups of participants, all exercisers in private fitness clubs, of both sexes, and aged between 15 and 55 years old (EFA: n=120; CFA: n=318). The EFA results reveal a factorial structure equal to original version (10-item model), explaining 62.1% of total variance, with item factor loadings ranged from 0.54 to 0.88, and reasonable reliability (αEgo=0.88; αTask=0.80). The AFC results are generally good and showed an adequate model fit to data: S-Bχ²=65.9; df=34; p=0.001; S-Bχ²/df=1.94; SRMR=0.05; NNFI=0.96; CFI=0.97; RMSEA=0.05; 90% CI RMSEA=0.03-0.07. The results also indicated an acceptable reliability (αEgo=0.84; αTask=0.77), and item factor loadings ranged from 0.45 to 0.86, which leads us to conclude that Portuguese version of GOEM can be used with high confidence to measure achievement goals in exercise domain.Study 2 Translation and Validation of the Portuguese version of Perceived Motivational Climate Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQp) adaptation to Exercise. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Measurement Model of Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Domain The main purpose of this study is to present the results of translation and validation of the Portuguese version of Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ) adaptation to exercise, through exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis, performed with two independent groups of participants, all exercisers in private fitness clubs, of both sexes, and aged between 14 and 64 years old (EFA: n=122; CFA: n=358). The EFA results reveal a factorial structure explaining 52% of total variance, with item factor loadings ranged from 0.63 to 0.80, and reasonable reliability (αMastery=0.78; αPerformance=0.74). The AFC results are generally good and showed an excellent model fit to data: S-Bχ²=40.6; df=34; p=0.20; S-Bχ²/df=1.19; SRMR=0.03; NNFI=0.98; CFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.02; 90% IC RMSEA=0.00-0.05. The results also indicated an acceptable reliability (αMastery=0.74; αPerformance=0.75), and item factor loadings ranged from 0.50 to 0.79, which leads us to conclude that Portuguese version of PMCSQ adaptation to exercise can be used with high confidence to measure motivational climate in exercise domain.Study 3 Basic Psychological Needs Assessment in Exercise Domain. Exploring an Global Satisfaction Index of Autonomy, Competence and Relatedness, from the Portuguese version of Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNESp) The main propose of this study is the psychometric properties examination of the Portuguese version of Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNESp). Besides that, an overall need satisfaction factor was postulated underpinned by the three psychological needs. These proposes were accomplished with a sample of 550 exercisers from private fitness centers, aged from 14 to 69 years. The results support the suitability of the three-factor and twelveitems model (S-Bχ²=134.7; df=51; p=0.000; χ²/df=2.64; SRMR=0.05; NNFI=0.93; CFI=0.94; RMSEA=0.06; 90% IC RMSEA=0.04-0.07), and also of the three first-order factors underpinning a second-order factor (S-Bχ²=134.9; df=52; p=0.000; χ²/df=2.59; SRMR=0.05; NNFI=0.93; CFI=0.94; RMSEA=0.05; 90% IC RMSEA=0.04-0.07). The results also indicated a reasonable reliability (Autonomy=0.68; Competence=0.68; Relatedness=0.81; Global Index=0.82). Those findings allow us to conclude, that Portuguese version of BPNES can be used to, with great confidence, to measure the basic psychological needs in exercise domain.Study 4 Behavioural Regulation Assessment in Exercise Domain: Exploring an Autonomous versus Controlled Motivation Index from the Portuguese version of Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) The main propose of this study is the psychometric properties examination of the Portuguese version of Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2). Besides that, an overall factor to measure autonomous and controlled motivation was postulated underpinned by the different types of behavioral regulation. These proposes were accomplished with a sample of 550 exercisers from private fitness centers, aged from 14 to 69 years. The results support the suitability of the five-factor and eighteen-items model, that lead us to one item exclusion (S-Bχ²=221.7; df=125; p=0.000; χ²/df=1.77; SRMR=0.06; NNFI=0.90; CFI=0.92; RMSEA=0.04; 90% IC RMSEA=0.03-0.05). However, factor reliability showed some problems of internal consistency. In other hand, results of the hierarchical model underpinning two second-order factors, that comprise controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation) and autonomous motivation (identified and intrinsic regulation), showed acceptable fit to data (S-Bχ²=172.6; df=74; p=0.000; χ²/df=2.33; SRMR=0.07; NNFI=0.90; CFI=0.92; RMSEA=0.05; 90% IC RMSEA=0.04-0.06), and reasonable reliability (controlled motivation=0.75; autonomous motivation=0.76). Those findings allow us to conclude, that Portuguese version of BREQ-2 (excluded item 17) can be used to measure the controlled and autonomous motivation (by an composite of factors), in exercise domain.Study 5 Motivation and Adherence to Exercise in Fitness Centers. Test of Motivational Hierarchical Models that Integrates the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory The main propose of this study is to test two hierarchical motivational models of exercise adherence that integrates the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory. These proposes were accomplished with 218 exercisers from private fitness centers of both genders (102 female, 116 male), and aged between 15 and 60 years, that completed the Portuguese version of Goal Orientation Exercise Measure (GOEM), Perceived Motivational. Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (PMCEQ), Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES), Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2), and adherence to exercise was measure by the number of their visits to the fitness center over 6-month period before and after the psychological assessment. The structural equation modeling results showed: 1) task orientation positively predicted autonomous motivation, while ego orientation positively predicted amotivation. In turn, only the positive association between selfdetermined motivation and adherence to exercise was significant; 2) mastery-involving motivacional climate positively predicted the basic psychological needs. In turn, the satisfaction of these needs predicted autonomous motivation, which also positively predicted adherence to exercise. There were no significant associations between performance-involving motivacional climate, basic psychological needs, and less self-determined motivation; 3) only few amount of variation of adherence to exercise was explained by both motivacional models. However both models significant improve their predictive power over adherence to exercise when past behaviour was taken into account.
Descrição: DISSERTAÇÃO DE DOUTORAMENTO EM CIÊNCIAS DO DESPORTO - Este trabalho foi expressamente elaborado com vista à obtenção do grau de Doutor em Ciências do Desporto, de acordo com o disposto no Decreto-lei nº216/92, de 13 de Outubro, por Luís Filipe Cid Serra,orientado por:Professor Doutor José Augusto Marinho Alves, Professor Doutor José Carlos Leitão.
Peer review: no
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.15/404
Aparece nas colecções:Teses de Doutoramento_ESDRM

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